Behind the Welds: Understanding the Differences in Carbon Steel vs Stainless Steel Fabrication

April 28, 2024
Carbon Steel vs. Stainless Steel Fabrication

In the world of metal fabrication, the choice between carbon steel and stainless steel is a critical decision that can significantly impact the performance, durability, and suitability of the final product. These two materials, while sharing some similarities, exhibit distinct characteristics that make them better suited for different applications and fabrication processes. Understanding the nuances of carbon steel vs stainless steel is essential for engineers, fabricators, and end-users alike.

Unlocking the Composition Mystery

At the core of the differences between carbon steel and stainless steel lies their chemical composition. Carbon steel is an alloy primarily composed of iron and carbon, with the carbon content typically ranging from 0.12% to 2.1%. This relatively simple composition contributes to carbon steel’s strength, hardness, and cost-effectiveness, making it a popular choice for various industrial and construction applications.

On the other hand, stainless steel is an alloy that contains chromium at a minimum of 10.5%, along with other alloying elements like nickel, molybdenum, and manganese. The presence of chromium is what gives stainless steel its remarkable corrosion resistance, as it forms a passive oxide layer that prevents rusting and deterioration.

Fabrication Considerations

The distinct properties of carbon steel and stainless steel also influence their fabrication processes and techniques. Carbon steel, with its relatively low cost and high tensile strength, is widely used in welding applications. However, careful surface preparation and protective measures are required to prevent oxidation and rust formation during the welding process.

Stainless steel, on the other hand, poses its own set of challenges during fabrication. While it is inherently corrosion-resistant, the chromium content can lead to the formation of chromium oxides during welding, which can compromise the material’s corrosion-resistant properties. Specialized welding techniques, such as purging with inert gases, are often employed to mitigate this issue and ensure the integrity of the stainless steel fabrication.

High Carbon Steel: A Specialized Variant

Within the realm of carbon steel, a specialized variant known as high carbon steel exists. As the name implies, this type of steel contains a higher percentage of carbon, typically ranging from 0.6% to 1.5%. High carbon steel exhibits exceptional hardness, wear resistance, and tensile strength, making it an ideal choice for applications that require durability and resistance to abrasion, such as cutting tools, knives, and certain machine components.

However, the increased carbon content also makes high carbon steel more susceptible to brittleness and reduced weldability. Proper heat treatment and specialized welding techniques are often required to mitigate these challenges and ensure the successful fabrication of high carbon steel products.

Corrosion Resistance and Environmental Considerations

One of the most significant advantages of stainless steel over carbon steel is its superior corrosion resistance. The chromium content in stainless steel forms a passive oxide layer that protects the material from rust, corrosion, and environmental degradation. It makes stainless steel an ideal choice for applications involving exposure to harsh environments, chemicals, or moisture, such as in the food and beverage industry, marine environments, and certain chemical processing facilities.

In contrast, carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion and rust, especially in damp or corrosive environments. While protective coatings and surface treatments can enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel, these measures often require additional maintenance and may have a limited lifespan.

Stainless vs Carbon Steel: Applications and Cost Considerations

The choice between stainless steel and carbon steel often comes down to the specific application requirements and cost considerations. Carbon steel is generally more affordable and widely available, making it a popular choice for structural applications, construction, and general-purpose fabrication where corrosion resistance is not a primary concern.

Stainless steel is more expensive due to its alloying elements and specialized manufacturing processes. However, its exceptional corrosion resistance, durability, and aesthetic appeal make it the preferred choice for applications in industries such as food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, and architectural finishes, where hygiene, longevity, and appearance are crucial.


In the realm of metal fabrication, the choice between carbon steel and stainless steel is a pivotal decision that requires a deep understanding of their distinct properties, fabrication considerations, and application requirements. While carbon steel offers affordability and strength, stainless steel excels in corrosion resistance and durability. Ultimately, the selection should be driven by the specific demands of the project, factoring in environmental conditions, cost constraints, and long-term performance goals. By comprehending the nuances of these two materials, engineers and fabricators can make informed decisions that ensure the successful execution of projects across diverse industries.


Can carbon steel be made corrosion-resistant through coatings or treatments?

Yes, carbon steel can be made more corrosion-resistant through various coatings and surface treatments. Galvanizing, which involves applying a protective zinc coating, is a common method to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel. Other options include powder coating, painting, and the application of specialized coatings like epoxy or polyurethane. However, these treatments often require regular maintenance and may have a limited lifespan compared to the inherent corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

Is it possible to weld stainless steel to carbon steel?

Yes, it is possible to weld stainless steel to carbon steel, but it requires specialized welding techniques and filler materials. The dissimilar materials can create galvanic corrosion issues, which must be addressed through proper joint design, filler metal selection, and post-weld heat treatment. Additionally, care must be taken to ensure that the weld does not compromise the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel component.

How does the cost of carbon steel compare to that of stainless steel?

Carbon steel is generally more affordable than stainless steel due to its simpler composition and lower production costs. The price difference can vary depending on factors such as the specific grade of steel, market conditions, and local availability. However, the higher initial cost of stainless steel is often offset by its superior corrosion resistance, durability, and lower maintenance requirements over the long term.

Are there any environmental concerns associated with carbon steel or stainless steel production?

Both carbon steel and stainless steel production processes have potential environmental impacts. Carbon steel production can contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution due to the use of coal and coke in the steelmaking process. Stainless steel production, while more energy-intensive, generally has a lower carbon footprint but may involve the mining and processing of alloying elements like chromium and nickel, which can have environmental consequences if not properly managed.

Unraveling the Mysteries of Hot vs. Cold Steel Rolling Techniques

March 23, 2024
Hot vs. Cold Steel Rolling Techniques

Steel, a foundational material in construction and countless industries undergoes various processes to achieve its final form. Steel rolling is a crucial technique that shapes steel into sheets, plates, and other desired shapes. This article dives into the two main types of steel rolling: hot rolling and cold rolling. Each method offers distinct advantages and applications in the vast world of metalworking. Understanding these types of rolling will equip you to make informed decisions when selecting steel for your projects.

Unveiling the Power of Steel Rolling

Steel rolling utilizes immense pressure from rollers to transform red-hot or room-temperature steel ingots into various shapes and thicknesses.

The Hot Rolling Frenzy

Hot rolling reigns supreme in shaping large steel sections. Steel ingots are heated to scorching temperatures, exceeding their recrystallization point. This extreme heat makes the metal more malleable and more accessible for manipulation by the powerful sheet metal roller. Hot-rolled steel boasts advantages like faster production times and affordability. However, its dimensional tolerances could be more precise, and the surface finish tends to be rougher than cold-rolled steel.

Advantages of Hot Rolling

Hot rolling offers several advantages:
It’s a more cost-effective process due to the faster production speeds achieved by high temperatures.
Hot-rolled steel exhibits excellent formability, making it suitable for bending and shaping applications.
The hot rolling process inherently relieves internal stresses within the steel, improving its overall stability.

When to Choose Hot-Rolled Steel

Hot-rolled steel is the go-to choice for projects requiring significant structural components like beams and columns. Its affordability and excellent formability make it ideal for these applications. Additionally, hot-rolled steel is often used as a starting point for further processing through cold rolling for situations where a smoother finish or tighter tolerances are necessary.

Cold Rolling for Precision

Cold rolling takes previously hot-rolled steel and refines it further. The steel is processed at room temperature, and work hardening strengthens the material. This process allows for tighter control over dimensions, resulting in highly precise sheets and coils. Additionally, cold rolling yields a smoother and cleaner surface finish, making it ideal for applications requiring a polished aesthetic.

Benefits of Cold Rolling

Cold rolling has its own set of benefits:
Cold-rolled steel shines with its exceptional dimensional accuracy.
Tighter tolerances on thickness and width make it perfect for precise applications.
Cold rolling also boasts increased strength and hardness. This makes the steel suitable for high-stress environments.
The smooth surface finish of cold-rolled steel often eliminates the need for additional finishing steps.


When to Choose Cold-Rolled Steel

Cold-rolled steel shines in applications demanding precise dimensions and a smooth surface finish. It’s commonly used in car parts, appliances, and sheet metal roofing due to its superior strength, tight tolerances, and aesthetic appeal. Cold-rolled steel’s inherent strength makes it suitable for applications requiring high structural integrity.

Making the Right Choice

Selecting between hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel hinges on your specific project requirements. Consider the desired dimensions, surface finish, strength, and budget. Hot-rolled steel excels in cost-effectiveness and formability for large structures, while cold-rolled steel reigns supreme in applications demanding precision, strength, and a smooth aesthetic finish.


Understanding the distinct characteristics of hot and cold rolling empowers you to make informed decisions when selecting steel for your projects. Hot rolling offers a cost-effective solution for large-scale projects, while cold rolling provides superior dimensional accuracy, strength, and a polished finish. Explore the unique advantages of each process to unlock the full potential of steel in your metalworking endeavours.


What are the primary differences between hot and cold steel rolling processes?
Hot rolling uses high heat for larger reductions and improved strength, while cold rolling at room temperature offers tighter tolerances, smoother finishes, and increased hardness.

Which rolling technique is more suitable for producing structural components?
Hot steel rolling is generally preferred for producing structural components, such as bars, rods, and shapes, due to its ability to achieve significant cross-sectional reductions and enhance the strength and toughness of the steel.

How does the surface finish of rolled steel products impact their performance?
The surface finish of rolled steel products can significantly influence their performance and functionality. Cold rolling typically produces superior surface finishes, which can benefit applications where surface quality is essential, such as automotive body panels, decorative components, or precision engineering applications.

Can both hot and cold rolling techniques be combined in the production process?
Yes, it is common for materials to undergo both hot and cold rolling processes sequentially. Hot rolling is often followed by cold rolling to achieve the desired dimensional tolerances, surface finishes, and mechanical properties tailored to the specific application.

Crafting Connections: How Laser Welding Machines Transform Manufacturing

March 23, 2024
laser welding machine", "Laser Welding","laser welder","laser welding machine price", and "how does welding work

In modern manufacturing, laser welding machines have emerged as a game-changer, revolutionizing how we approach precision, speed, and efficiency. These cutting-edge machines harness the power of highly focused laser beams to fuse materials with unparalleled accuracy and strength. As we delve into the world of laser welding, we’ll uncover the remarkable capabilities of these machines and their profound impact on various industries, from automotive to aerospace and beyond.

Laser Welding: Forging the Future of Manufacturing

The manufacturing world is transforming, driven by the precision and power of laser technology. Enter laser welding machines – these innovative tools are revolutionizing how we join materials, creating more robust, cleaner, and efficient connections.

The Power of Precision: Laser Welding Unveiled

At the heart of a laser welding machine lies a concentrated beam of light that generates intense heat and energy. This laser beam is directed with pinpoint accuracy onto the materials to be joined, melting and fusing them with extraordinary precision. Laser welding offers unmatched control, unlike traditional methods, allowing for intricate and complex welds with minimal distortion or heat-affected zones. This level of precision is invaluable in applications where dimensional accuracy and structural integrity are paramount, such as in the aerospace and medical device industries.

Speed and Efficiency: Streamlining Production Processes

One of the most significant advantages of laser welding machines is their remarkable speed and efficiency. These machines can rapidly fuse materials with minimal setup time, enabling faster production cycles and increased throughput. The high energy density of the laser beam allows for rapid heating and cooling, reducing the risk of warping or distortion in the welded components. This streamlined process enhances productivity and reduces material waste, contributing to cost-effective and sustainable manufacturing practices.

Versatility Unleashed: Diverse Material Compatibility

Laser welding machines boast an impressive range of material compatibility, making them versatile tools for various applications. From delicate metals like aluminum and stainless steel to advanced materials like titanium and nickel-based alloys, these machines can seamlessly fuse various materials with exceptional strength and reliability. This versatility opens up new possibilities for manufacturers, enabling them to explore innovative designs and material combinations that were once deemed challenging or impractical using traditional welding techniques.

Automation and Integration: Enhancing Productivity

Laser welding machines seamlessly integrate into automated manufacturing systems, enhancing productivity and efficiency. By combining these machines with robotic arms and computer-controlled positioning systems, manufacturers can achieve consistent and repeatable welds with minimal human intervention. This level of automation reduces labour costs and minimizes the risk of human error, ensuring consistent quality and reliability across large-scale production runs.

Advanced Applications: Pushing the Boundaries

The capabilities of laser welding machines extend far beyond conventional applications. These machines produce lightweight yet robust vehicle structures in the automotive industry, contributing to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. In the medical field, laser welding plays a crucial role in manufacturing implants and surgical instruments, ensuring biocompatibility and precise tolerances. Furthermore, emerging technologies like additive manufacturing (3D printing) increasingly rely on laser welding for intricate and complex part fabrication, opening new frontiers in design and innovation.


As we navigate the ever-changing landscape of modern manufacturing, laser welding machines are a testament to the power of innovation and technological advancement. These remarkable machines have revolutionized how we approach precision, speed, and efficiency, enabling manufacturers to craft connections that transcend traditional boundaries. Whether you’re in the automotive, aerospace, medical, or any other industry, embracing the capabilities of laser welding machines can unlock a world of possibilities, driving innovation, enhancing productivity, and shaping the future of manufacturing.


What are the main advantages of using a laser welding machine?
The main advantages of laser welding machines include exceptional precision, high speed and efficiency, versatility with various materials, seamless automation integration, and advanced applications across diverse industries.

How does welding work?
A laser welding machine generates a highly concentrated beam of light that produces intense heat and energy. This laser beam is directed onto the materials to be joined, melting and fusing them with pinpoint accuracy.

What materials can be welded using a laser welding machine?
Laser welding machines are compatible with a wide range of materials, including metals like aluminum, stainless steel, titanium, and nickel-based alloys and advanced materials used in industries like aerospace and medical devices.

Is laser welding suitable for intricate or complex designs?
Laser welding is particularly well-suited for intricate and complex designs due to its exceptional precision and minimal heat-affected zones. This enables manufacturers to create intricate welds and explore innovative designs that would be challenging with traditional welding methods.

How does laser welding contribute to cost-effective manufacturing?
Laser welding machines offer high speed and efficiency, reducing production cycle times and material waste. Additionally, their compatibility with automation and robotic integration further enhances productivity and minimizes labour costs.

Can laser welding machines be integrated into automated manufacturing systems?
Laser welding machines are designed to integrate seamlessly with automated manufacturing systems, robotic arms, and computer-controlled positioning systems. This allows for consistent and repeatable welds with minimal human intervention, improving productivity and quality control.

Innovations in Metal Rolling Technology: Advancements and Future Trends

March 11, 2024

Metal rolling is a core materials processing technology that continues to advance through innovations. This article explores recent improvements in rolling mills, modeling software, safety features, and automation, shaping the future of metal rolling.

An Overview of Metal Rolling 
Rolling reduces the thickness of metal stock and imparts desired mechanical properties through compressive forces. Hot metal sheet roll allows higher reductions versus cold rolling at room temperature.  Rolling mill configurations like tandem, reversing, and ring mills employ massive rollers to shape metal into sheets, strips, and plates. The process accounts for over 90% of all metals produced today. Ongoing advances provide flatter, thinner, higher-quality rolls.

Smarter Control Systems and Instrumentation
Modern rolling mills are evolving into highly automated cyber-physical systems monitored and controlled by industrial computers and smart sensors. Refined gauge and shape measurement scanners feed into adaptive control models that adjust rolling forces in real time. Precision servo-electric motors replace hydraulic systems. Instrumentation upgrades support detecting and correcting deviations faster than human operators.

Advanced Simulation and Design Software
Software tools like finite element analysis and thermo-mechanical modeling better predict rolling forces, temperature effects, and product characteristics. Simulations assist engineers in designing optimal roll pass schedules and control strategies before physical commissioning. Virtual plant modeling helps visualize interactions between process variables. Next-generation rolling mills are configured by leveraging simulation for maximum efficiency and precision before operation.

Safer and Cleaner Mills
One focus of mill upgrades is improving workplace safety. Advanced fume extraction systems provide cleaner air quality. Sound-dampening materials and noise isolation reduce hearing hazards. Guarded pinch points, light curtains, and interlocks safeguard workers around machinery. Ergonomic handling equipment like manipulators and cranes reduces heavy lifting. Automation and remote monitoring further minimize direct exposure to hazards.

Novel Mill Configurations 
Unique rolling mill designs continue to emerge optimized for specialized products. Inline mills with coordinated shears, slitters, and rollers enable single-pass production. Small- diameter roll cluster mills can handle geometries like tubes previously infeasible.
Continuous rolling processes boost throughput. Mills explicitly designed for challenging new alloys improve roll quality. Material-specific innovations target both productivity and final metal characteristics.

Smart Metal Transfer and Handling
Automated stock reels, conveyors, and coilers allow balanced material flow with zero downtime between mill stands. Intelligent transfer systems synchronize for continuous rolling. 

Self-adjusting coilers and tension control adapt in real-time to ensure properly wound final rolls without overstretching. Precision material movement minimizes human involvement.

Power and Efficiency Improvements
Upgraded AC variable frequency motor drives provide better speed control and energy efficiency. Optimized lubrication flows reduce friction and waste. On-site heat capture and insulation conserve thermal energy. Proportional valves and pumps conserve hydraulic power. Many upgrades focus on reducing rolling power consumption while pursuing green manufacturing principles.

Leveraging Big Data Analytics
Refined sensors capture vast datasets on factors from product dimensions to equipment vibrations and temperature changes. Robust cloud-based analysis looks for correlations between variables and predicts deviations. By combining real-time data with historical patterns, rolling can be continuously refined through machine learning algorithms. Data-driven innovative mills will achieve levels of performance consistency that humans cannot match.

The Future of Intelligent Rolling
Looking ahead, the rolling mill will integrate even more comprehensive process controls, built-in defect detection, predictive maintenance alerts, and autonomous optimization. Combining metallurgical science with digitized systems will open new realms of efficiency and precision.
Rolling will move beyond an operational process into a strategic one where material characteristics are engineered at the molecular level. Technology innovations will shape the next generation of high-tech, low-emission, innovative rolling mills.

Rolling technology evolves rapidly through upgraded instrumentation, computational modeling, data-driven systems, and specialized mechanical designs. Integrating material physics with automated control networks will enable a new caliber of intelligent, precision rolling systems for producing the alloys and products driving 21st-century materials science and manufacturing.


Q: How have computers changed metal rolling technology?
A: Advanced instrumentation, simulation software, predictive analytics, and adaptive controls allow more innovative monitoring and automation of variables like pressure and temperature during rolling. It enhances precision, consistency, and efficiency.

Q: What are the main types of rolling processes?
A: Common rolling processes include bar rolling for shaping steel bars, section rolling for vast flats and angles, steel rolling for thin gauge steel sheets, and toll rolling, where customized shapes are produced using specialized rollers.

Q: How does rolling impact metal properties?
Rolling enhances strength and hardness via strain hardening while improving uniformity in the grain structure. Careful control over temperature and reduction ratios lets engineers dial in desired characteristics.

Q: What is a sheet metal roller?
A: A sheet metal roller is a heavy cylindrical tool used in metalworking and sheet metal rolling processes. It reduces the thickness of sheet metal stock by compressing and forming the material as it passes through. Sets of rollers are used to achieve specific gauges.

Q: What is metalworking in Canada?
A: Metalworking Canada refers to various industrial processes that involve cutting, forming, and assembling metals. Many metal fabrication shops and metalworks across Canada perform metalworking activities like machining, welding, and finishing to produce parts for automotive, construction, manufacturing, and other sectors.

Laser Welding vs. Traditional Welding: A Comparative Analysis

March 11, 2024

Laser welding technology offers distinct advantages over conventional welding methods for many applications. This article examines how laser welding compares to traditional techniques like MIG, TIG, spot, and arc welding across various factors.

An Introduction to Laser Welding
Laser welding directs an intense, focused beam of monochromatic laser light to fuse materials seamlessly. The concentrated heat input creates narrow welds and precise penetration. Lasers allow the welding of heat-sensitive metals and intricate components that other processes struggle with. Lasers provide highly accurate, controlled welding, ideal for delicate electronics and medical devices. Automation potential is high. Lasers have downsides like higher equipment costs, but offer unique capabilities over standard welding.

Heat Source and Operation
With traditional welding, an electrical arc or flame provides the heat to melt base metals. It trades control for high penetration power. Vast pools of heat can warp and weaken joint areas. Laser welding concentrates up to 100,000 watts into a pinpoint, accurate beam guided by CNC programming. The parallel sides and reduced heat input prevent warping, allowing deeper penetration into reflective metals like aluminum or copper. The precise, automated heat control is a significant advantage over conventional welding’s brute-force approach.

Metals Joining Ability
Standard welding methods like GMAW and GTAW work well for safely joining ordinary steel, iron, and nickel alloys. But more exotic and reflective alloys like aluminum, titanium, and copper can be problematic. Laser welding readily joins dissimilar metals since the concentrated heat minimizes metallurgical compatibility issues. The laser beam is also not impeded by shiny surfaces. This allows for intricate mixed-metal components and electrodes.

Speed and Efficiency
Standard welding could be faster due to manual operation, wide welds, and slow heat input. Typical speeds range from 2-6 inches per minute for skilled welders. High-volume output requires multiple welding stations. Laser welding achieves speeds exceeding 100 inches per minute with automated systems. Narrow welds minimize cleanup and rework. Lasers achieve in seconds what takes other welding many minutes. Reduced heat input saves energy as well. Laser efficiency benefits high-production environments.

Weld Quality and Appearance
Conventional welding produces adequate strength, but the results are visually uneven and often blemished. Pools of splatter and discoloration require extensive cleanup.

Laser welding seams have a uniform, machined look, lacking imperfections. The concentrated heat minimizes splatter and fingerprinting. Smooth, even welds generally need little post-processing. Laser welding provides consistent aesthetic manufacturing demands.

Effect on Base Metals
The broad heating and cooling cycles of traditional welding induce material stresses that may require post-weld heat treatment to stabilize the joint. This distortion and hardening reduces ductility. The laser’s narrow heat-affected zone exerts minimal stresses on metals. Materials retain more pre-weld tensile strength and plasticity. Lasers help materials avoid compromising their innate characteristics.

Automation Capability
Standard welding remains primarily a manual process requiring an experienced human operator, even with welding robots. Fixturing and joint preparation add labour. Laser welding systems excel at full automation using advanced programming. Simple rigid fixturing combined with laser precision minimizes setup workload. Lasers can weld complex curves and tricky joints with minimal direct handling. This automation potential boosts productivity.

Cost Considerations
Standard welding equipment like welders and wire feeders involves moderate upfront costs. Consumables like filler metal and shielding gas require ongoing purchase. Laser welding systems carry high initial capital costs, often exceeding $100,000. Automated operation then reduces per-part costs, and fibre lasers minimize maintenance expenses. Lasers provide quick ROI in high-volume scenarios.

Safety Factors
Conventional welding poses numerous risks, from electrical shock to eye damage, fumes, and heat/fire hazards. Sound protection is critical against loud arc noise. Laser welding systems require safeguarding but eliminate electrical and fume risks. Some laser wavelengths can be filtered for safe viewing. The enclosed beam path tightly contains any hazards. Laser hazards are more straightforward to control than traditional welding.

Laser welding enables reliable precision and efficiency, exceeding conventional welding’s capabilities on advanced metals and geometries. However, the initial investment means it only outperforms traditional welding in high-volume production where automation can be leveraged. Each process has applications where it shines based on work volumes, base materials, precision needs and cost considerations. Understanding their respective strengths helps manufacturers select the optimal welding approach.


Q: What is the difference between a laser welder and laser welds?
A: A laser welder is a machine that creates laser welds. Laser welds refer to the fused joints between materials produced through laser welding using a laser welder’s concentrated laser beam as the heat source.

Q: How thick of metals can lasers penetrate?
A: Laser welding can achieve penetrations from 0.005″ up to 0.25″ and is more significant depending on power level, focal optics, and metal composition. Thicker sections may require multiple weld passes.

Q: How does welding work?
A: Welding involves melting two materials together using extreme heat. An electric arc, gas flame, solid-state process or other methods generate enough temperature for the metals to fuse upon cooling and solidifying.

Q: What is a laser welding machine?
A: A laser welding machine uses an intense laser beam as an energy source for welding metal components together. The laser generates extreme heat localized to a small area, allowing for precise welding without contact between the laser tool and the workpiece.

Q: How much does a laser welding machine price compared to standard welding?
A: Laser welding machines have a higher upfront cost. However, they can be more cost-effective than traditional welding over time due to precision, speed, less material waste and lower maintenance fees despite the initial equipment investment.

Machining Bending Rolling
CLICK HERE to meet Paul, the Owner and Fabricating Expert